2008-03-01: గమనిక: అనామక మార్పుచేర్పులను నిషేధించాం. మార్పులు చెయ్యడానికి లోనికి ప్రవేశించాలి.

Read / Write Telugu in Linux

e-తెలుగు నుండి

విషయ సూచిక

Fonts

The following instructions will help install fonts for a single user on the system (no root password required)

$ wget http://www.kavya-nandanam.com/Pothana2k.zip
  • Unzip the font package file for the file Pothana2000.ttf
$ unzip Pothana2k.zip
  • Copy this file to ".fonts" directory in your home directory
$ mkdir ~/.fonts
$ cp Pothana2000.ttf ~/.fonts
  • Update the font cache
$ fc-cache

You will need to restart an application after installing the font to see the newly installed font in that application.

Note:In Ubuntu 6.06 these fonts are already installed, but gedit may not render them properly, to view the font properly type $ "sudo sed -i.orig 's/lang=:/lang=te:/g' /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-telugu-fonts/fonts.cache-1" in the terminal window (without quotes) for information visit Bug No#48280 for wiki

Web Browser

You can choose from the many available web browsers. Currently Firefox, Mozilla and Konqueror are known to render Indian languages properly.

FireFox

Firefox build that is readily available on most linux distributions does not properly render Indian languages text. You need to get an [Indic enabled build] of Firefox 1.0.2.

On Fedora Core 3, you do not need to download the special build because Mozilla already has the capability to render Indian language text. But it has to be enabled explictly while running Mozilla. To start Mozilla use the following command on the shell:

$ MOZ_ENABLE_PANGO=1 firefox

Mozilla

Mozilla browser that is readily avaiable on most distributions does not properly render Indian languages text. You need to get an [Indic enabled build] of Mozilla 1.7 from the [contributed builds].

On Fedora Core 3, you do not need to download the special build because Mozilla already has the capability to render Indian language text. But it has to be enabled explictly while running Mozilla. To start Mozilla use the following command on the shell:

$ MOZ_ENABLE_PANGO=1 mozilla

Konqueror

Konqueror renders Indian languages properly if it uses Qt version 3.2 or above. Typically you have the required Konqueror if you are running KDE 3.2 or above.

on Gentoo, emerge media-fonts/fonts-indic and start a fresh instance of konqueror

Keyboard

The information presented here will enable you to type Telugu text in any computer program found on a GNU/Linux system.

First, we need to associate Telugu characters with the keys on your keyboard. Then, when you press certain keys on your keyboard, the Telugu character(s) associated with those keys will appear on your computer monitor.

There are several ways to perform such association. These ways are known as keymaps.

Inscript Keymap

The Inscript keymap is ideal for a beginner because each key on the keyboard is associated with exactly one Telugu character. In this manner, it is very similar to a standard English keyboard, where each key is associated with exactly one English character. Also, it is readily available in most GNU/Linux distributions so you don't need to install any additional software to use it.

To enable Inscript on your system, find your graphical desktop environment in one of the sections below and follow the instructions presented there.

GNOME 2.8.x and above

  1. Enable the Keyboard Indicator
    Right click on panel
    Choose Add to Panel...
    Choose Keyboard Indicator
    Click Add
    

    You should now see a Keyboard Indicator applet on your panel.

  2. Add Telugu as one of the layouts
    Right click on Keyboard Indicator
    Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
    Choose Layout tab
    Select Telugu in Available Layouts list
    Click Add
    

    On the keyboard indicator, when you see tel you will be typing in Telugu.

  3. Assign a shortcut to switching between US and Telugu keyboard layouts.
    Right click on the Keyboard Indicator
    Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
    Choose Layout Options tab
    Select an option from Group Shift/Lock Behaviour in Avaiable Options list
    Click Add
    

    You will now be able to switch the groups using a keyboard shortcut depending on the option you have chosen.

GNOME 2.6.x

  1. Enable the Keyboard Indicator
    Right click on panel
    Choose Add to Panel
    Choose Utility
    Choose Keyboard Indicator
    

    You should now see a Keyboard Indicator applet on your panel.

  2. Add Telugu as one of the layouts
    Right click on Keyboard Indicator
    Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
    Choose Layout tab
    Select Telugu in Available Layouts list
    Click Add
    

    On the keyboard indicator, when you see tel you will typing in Telugu.

  3. Assign a shortcut to switching between US and Telugu keyboard layouts.
    Right click on the Keyboard Indicator
    Choose Open Keyboard Preferences
    Choose Layout Options tab
    Select an option from Group Shift/Lock Behaviour category in Avaiable Options list
    Click Add
    

    You will now be able to switch the groups using a keyboard shortcut depending on the option you have chosen.

GNOME 2.4.x and below

  1. Enable the Keyboard Switcher
    Right click on panel
    Choose Add to Panel
    Choose Utility
    Choose Keyboard Layout Switcher
    

    You should now see a Keyboard Layout Switcher applet on your panel.

  2. Add Telugu as one of the layouts
    Right click on the Keyboard Layout Switcher applet
    Choose Preferences...
    Click add
    Select the language you want to add
    

    When the Keyboard Layout Swither shows Telugu, we will able to type in Telugu. You can press and Left alt and Left Shift to switch between the layouts.

KDE

  1. Enable the Keyboard Layout Switcher
    Open KDE Control Center
    Choose Regional & Accesibility
    Choose Keyboard Layout
    Select Layout tab
    Select Enable keyboard layouts
    
  2. Add Telugu as one of the layouts
    Choose Telugu from Available layouts list
    Click Add
    
  3. Assign a shortcut to switching between US and Telugu keyboard layouts.
    Select Xkb Options tab
    Select Enable Xkb options
    Select an option from the Group Shift/Lock Behaviour category in the Options list
    Click Apply
    Close Control Center
    

    You should now see Keyboard Layout Switcher in the notification area. You can switch keyboard layouts by clicking on the Keyboard Layout Switcher or by using the keyboard shortcut you have chosen.

Rice Transliteration Standard (RTS) Keymap

The RTS keymap is convenient for people who know English and can already type on an English keyboard. For example, it allows us to simply type rAmuDu or raamud'u when we wish to write రాముడు in Telugu. This process is called transliteration, and the rules which govern it are specified by the RTS.

The technology described in the previous section is insufficient for transliteration because it simply transforms a single key-press into a single character. In this manner, it is impossible to transliterate words which contain more than one character, such as rAmuDu. Therefore, we need a more powerful piece of software, called an input method editor, which has the ability to transliterate words of any length.

RTS with IIIM

This section describes how to install and use RTS with the Internet Intranet Input Method (IIIM) input method editor.

దస్త్రం:RTS with IIIM screenshot.png
Screen shot of Telugu RTS with IIIM on a Fedora Core GNU/Linux system.

Requirements

Ensure that the following packages are installed on your system:

Package Minimum version
iiimf 11.4-43
  • If you are using Ubuntu GNU/Linux, you can run the following command to install the necessary packages:
    sudo apt-get install iiimf-htt-le-indic
  • If you are using Fedora Core GNU/Linux version 3 or newer, then you already have the necessary packages.

Installing the keymap

Note: The paths shown in the subsequent instructions pertain specifically to Fedora Core 3 and Debian GNU/Linux. However, the process should be very similar on any GNU/Linux distribution. In particular, you may find that the paths shown below are only valid if they are fully written in lower-case on your system. For example, the path UNIT/TELUGU/ (shown in the instructions below) may correspond to unit/telugu/ on your system.

  1. Obtain and extract the newest release of IIIM Indic Maps.
    wget http://sarovar.org/download.php/882/iiim_indic_maps-0.4.tar.gz
    tar -xvzf iiim_indic_maps-0.4.tar.gz
    cd iiim_indic_maps
    
  2. Prepare the keymap for use with IIIM.
    /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/common/txt2bin telugu_rts.utf telugu_rts.data
    
  3. Install the keymap onto your system.
    su -c "cp telugu_rts.data /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/TELUGU/data/"
    

    or

    sudo cp telugu_rts.data /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/TELUGU/data/
    
  4. Notify IIIM about the newly installed keymap by adding the following line to the [ te_IN ] section of the /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/sysime.cfg file.
    telugu_rts common/ctim.so TELUGU
    

    The [ te_IN ] section will finally appear like this:

    [ te_IN ]
    telugu_rts common/ctim.so TELUGU
    inscript common/ctim.so TELUGU
    
  5. Restart IIIM. If you are not sure how to do this, simply reboot your system.

Enabling IIIM in GNOME

  1. Open a text editor and create a file named .Xsession with the following contents
    export GTK_IM_MODULE="iiim"
    export XMODIFIERS="@im=htt"
    export LANG=te_IN
    htt_xbe -if unitle &
    gnome-session
    killall htt_xbe
    
  2. Logout and login again

Now you can activate IIIM in any application by pressing Control-Space. Also, you can press the F6 function key to switch between the Inscript and RTS keymaps.

Enabling IIIM in KDE

  1. Open a text editor and create a file named .Xsession with the following contents
    export GTK_IM_MODULE="iiim"
    export XMODIFIERS="@im=htt"
    export LANG=te_IN
    htt_xbe -if unitle &
    startkde
    killall htt_xbe
    
  2. Logout and login again

Now you can activate IIIM in any application by pressing Control-Space. Also, you can press the F6 function key to switch between the Inscript and RTS keymaps.

RTS with SCIM

This section describes how to install and use RTS with the Smart Common Input Method (SCIM) input method editor.

Demonstration of Telugu RTS with SCIM on an Ubuntu GNU/Linux system.

Requirements

Ensure that the following packages are installed on your system:

Package Minimum version
m17n-lib 1.3.1
m17n-db 1.3.1
scim 1.2.2
  • If you are using Ubuntu GNU/Linux, you can run the following command to install the necessary packages:
    sudo apt-get install scim scim-gtk2-immodule scim-m17n m17n-lib m17n-db

Installing the keymap

Note: The paths shown in the subsequent instructions pertain specifically to Ubuntu GNU/Linux. However, the process should be very similar on any GNU/Linux distribution.

  1. Obtain the keymap.
    wget "http://cvs.m17n.org/viewcvs/m17n/m17n-contrib/im/te-rts.mim?view=co" -O te-rts.mim
  2. Install the keymap onto your system.
    su -c "cp te-rts.mim /usr/share/m17n/"
    

    or

    sudo cp te-rts.mim /usr/share/m17n/
    
  3. Restart SCIM. If you are not sure how to do this, simply reboot your system.

Enabling SCIM in X

  1. In your home directory, create a file named .Xsession with the following contents:
    export XMODIFIERS='@im=SCIM'
    export GTK_IM_MODULE="scim"
    export QT_IM_MODULE="scim"
    scim -d &
    
  2. Restart X

From now onwards, you can activate SCIM in any application by pressing Control-Space. Also, you can press Control-Alt-Up and Control-Alt-Down to switch between keymaps.

Enabling SCIM in GNOME

  1. In your home directory, create a file named .gnomerc with the following contents:
    export XMODIFIERS='@im=SCIM'
    export GTK_IM_MODULE="scim"
    export QT_IM_MODULE="scim"
    scim -d &
    gnome-session
    
  2. Log out of GNOME
  3. Log into GNOME

From now onwards, you can activate SCIM in any application by pressing Control-Space. Also, you can press Control-Alt-Up and Control-Alt-Down to switch between keymaps.

Enabling SCIM in KDE

  1. In your home directory, create a file named .Xsession with the following contents:
    export XMODIFIERS='@im=SCIM'
    export GTK_IM_MODULE="scim"
    export QT_IM_MODULE="scim"
    scim -d &
    startkde
    
  2. Log out of KDE
  3. Log into KDE

From now onwards, you can activate SCIM in any application by pressing Control-Space. Also, you can press Control-Alt-Up and Control-Alt-Down to switch between keymaps.

WX Keymap

WX is another phonetic keymap mostly similar to the RTS keymap above but is less phonetic in nature compared to RTS.

Installing WX Keymap

Installing WX keymap is similar to installing RTS Layout expect that you need get the file telugu_wx.utf instead of telugu_rts.utf. The file is available as a part of the package IIIM-Indic-Maps.

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